Chemistry High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The **actual pressure** distribution in a rotating fluid may be more complex and depend on additional factors. P = ρ × ω² × r² / 2

In the case of a fluid rotating with** angular velocity** (ω) about a vertical axis, the pressure rise (P) in a radial direction can be related to the angular velocity and the density (ρ) of the fluid.

To obtain the equation for P, we can start with the Bernoulli's equation, which relates the **pressure**, velocity, and elevation in a fluid flow. In this case, we will focus on the radial direction.

Consider a point at radius r from the axis of rotation. The fluid at this point experiences a **centripetal acceleration** due to its circular motion. This acceleration creates a pressure gradient in the radial direction.

The equation for the pressure rise (P) in the radial direction can be given as:

P = ρ × ω² × r² / 2

Where:

P is the pressure rise in the radial direction,

ρ is the density of the fluid,

ω is the angular velocity of the fluid, and

r is the radial distance from the axis of rotation.

This equation shows that the pressure rise is directly proportional to the square of the angular velocity and the square of the radial distance from the axis of rotation, and it is also **proportional** to the density of the fluid.

Please note that this equation assumes an idealized scenario and neglects other factors such as **viscosity** and any other external forces acting on the fluid. The actual pressure distribution in a rotating fluid may be more complex and depend on additional factors.

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## Related Questions

A student adds ammonium nitrate to water at 80 °C until no more dissolves. The student cools 100 cm3 of this solution of ammonium nitrate from 80 °C to 20 °C to produce crystals of ammonium nitrate. Determine the mass of ammonium nitrate that crystallises on cooling 100 cm3 of this solution from 80 °C to 20 °C [3 marks]

### Answers

The mass of **ammonium **nitrate that crystallizes on cooling 100 cm3 of the solution from 80 °C to 20 °C is dependent on the solubility of ammonium nitrate in water at those temperatures. Without specific solubility data, it is challenging to provide an accurate mass value. However, generally speaking, as the solution cools, the solubility of ammonium nitrate decreases, causing the excess to crystallize out.

When the student cools the solution, the **solubility **of ammonium nitrate decreases, and the excess ammonium nitrate starts to precipitate as crystals. The amount of ammonium nitrate that crystallizes out can be determined by calculating the difference between the initial mass of ammonium nitrate in the saturated solution (at 80 °C) and the final mass of the solution after cooling to 20 °C.

This difference represents the mass of ammonium nitrate that crystallizes.

To accurately determine the mass of ammonium nitrate that **crystallizes**, you would need to know the solubility of ammonium nitrate in water at both 80 °C and 20 °C. With this solubility data, you could calculate the maximum amount of ammonium **nitrate **that can dissolve at 80 °C and compare it to the amount that remains dissolved at 20 °C.

The difference between these two amounts would give you the mass of ammonium nitrate that crystallizes during the cooling process.

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KU Login KUSTAR Ankabut Email Sec. Pearson Sign In Mail-Ftain Albaloo 12 O ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL BONDING Predicting whether molecules are polar or nonpolar 05 Decide whether each molecule or polyatomic ion is polar or nonpolar. If the molecule or polyatomic ion is polar, write the chemical symbol of the atom closest to the negative side. For example, if the molecule were HCI and you decided the hydrogen atom was closest to the negative side of the molecule, you'd enter "H" in the last column of the table. molecule or polyatomic ion polar or nonpolar? atom closest to negative side O polar CH₂0 0 O nonpolar O polar Sifa 0 O nonpolar O polar O nonpolar HBri m

### Answers

HBr is a **polar molecule** with the Br atom as the negative atom. Hence, option A is correct.

The difference in electronegativity values of the bonded atoms in a molecule is used to predict whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar. The difference between 0.0 and 0.4 is regarded as nonpolar, while a difference greater than 0.4 is considered polar. The polar molecules have positive and negative ends that pull electrons unequally. The nonpolar molecules have symmetrical bonds that distribute the charge equally.

There are different methods for determining **polarity**, including the electronegativity method, the dipole moment method, the molecular geometry method, and the symmetry method. For the molecule or polyatomic ion given in the table, we will determine its polarity or **nonpolarity** and the atom closest to the negative side. CH₂O is a polar molecule with oxygen as the negative atom. SO2 is a polar molecule with sulfur as the negative atom. Sif4 is a nonpolar molecule because the bonds are symmetrical, and the molecule has no negative or positive side. CCl4 is a nonpolar molecule because the bonds are **symmetrical**, and the molecule has no negative or positive side. HBr is a polar molecule with the Br atom as the negative atom.

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a) Why should clean room complex be specially design (9marks)

b) Pharmacy services need clean room complex (6marks)

c) Mechanism terminal sterilization (6marks)

d) Mechanism not involve terminal sterilization (4marks)

### Answers

a) Clean room complexes should be specially **designed **to maintain a controlled environment with low levels of particulate contamination and to prevent the introduction of contaminants during pharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

b) Clean room complexes are essential for pharmacy services to ensure the production of sterile medications and to minimize the risk of contamination, ensuring the safety and efficacy of the products.

c) Terminal sterilization involves subjecting the final product to a sterilization process, such as heat or radiation, to eliminate all viable microorganisms.

d) Some mechanisms do not involve terminal sterilization,** **such as aseptic processing, which focuses on maintaining a sterile environment throughout the manufacturing process.

a) Clean room complexes need to be **specially designed** to create an environment that meets strict standards for cleanliness. These facilities have controlled air filtration systems, regulated temperature and humidity, and stringent protocols for gowning and behavior.

The purpose is to minimize the presence of particulate matter and microorganisms that could contaminate pharmaceutical products during manufacturing. By ensuring a clean and controlled environment, the risk of contamination is significantly reduced, which is crucial for maintaining product quality and patient safety.

b) Pharmacy services require clean room complexes primarily for the production of sterile medications. Clean rooms provide a controlled environment where aseptic techniques can be applied, ensuring that pharmaceutical products are free from contamination.

Sterile medications, such as injectables, **ophthalmic solutions**, and intravenous fluids, must be manufactured in clean rooms to prevent the introduction of bacteria, fungi, or other harmful microorganisms. Clean room complexes also play a vital role in compounding personalized medications and in the preparation of specialized dosage forms, such as parenteral nutrition and chemotherapy drugs.

c) Terminal sterilization is a mechanism used to achieve sterility in the final product by subjecting it to a sterilization process. Common methods include heat sterilization (autoclaving), gamma radiation, or electron beam radiation. These processes kill or inactivate all viable microorganisms present in the product, ensuring its sterility. Terminal sterilization is commonly used for heat-stable products or products that can withstand radiation.

d) Some mechanisms do not involve terminal sterilization. Aseptic processing is a technique used for manufacturing sterile products in a controlled environment without subjecting the final product to a sterilization process. Instead, aseptic processing focuses on preventing contamination during all stages of the manufacturing process, from raw material handling to final product packaging.

This involves rigorous protocols, such as wearing sterile garments, using sterile equipment, and maintaining a sterile environment through proper cleaning and disinfection procedures. Aseptic processing is commonly used for heat-sensitive or biologically derived products that cannot withstand terminal** sterilization methods.**

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A normally unattended platform in a remote tropical offshore location is being designed to undertake initial processing from three wells. From the well-heads, the fluids will be combined at a manifold and will then enter a three phase (gas/oil/water) horizontal separator. Water recovered from the separator will flow to a hydrocyclone before being discharged into the sea. Gas recovered from the separator would be used to generate electricity for the platform and any surplus sold to a neighbouring facility to provide them with fuel gas. Oil from the separator would pass through one of two oil export pumps arranged in parallel and then enter a 300 km pipeline to an onshore processing facility.

1. Describe, with the aid of a diagram, the operation of a hydrocyclone, explaining how the vortex within each tube causes oil and water to separate.

2. Each tube within the hydrocyclone can only achieve effective oil/water separation when the flow rate through the tube is between 1.6 m3.hr-1 and 2.4 m3.hr-1. If the flow at well 1 is at 45 m3.hr-1, well 2 at 30 m3.hr-1 and well 3 at 20 m3.hr-1; how many hydrocyclone tubes would be required? Explain your answer.

3. Each well may periodically need to be shut-in. How many hydrocyclone tubes would be required when well 1 is shut-in?

4. Hydrocyclone tubes are usually grouped together in a vessel, e.g., 20 tubes in parallel. It is easier to shut-in a vessel using valves than to blank off individual tubes within a vessel. In order to be able to maintain effective oil/water separation in all well permutations and combination, how many vessels would you propose to use, with how many tubes in each vessel? (Note you should choose the same number of tubes in each vessel as this allows for more operational flexibility).

### Answers

1) A **hydrocyclone** uses centrifugal force to separate oil and water. The fluid rotates within the hydrocyclone, creating a **vortex** that causes the heavier water phase to move outward and the lighter oil phase to move inward.

2) To achieve effective oil/water separation, each hydrocyclone tube requires a **flow rate** between 1.6 m3/hr and 2.4 m3/hr. For the given flow rates of 45 m3/hr, 30 m3/hr, and 20 m3/hr, we would need 19, 13, and 9 hydrocyclone tubes respectively.

3) When well 1 is shut-in, we only need to consider the flow rates from well 2 and well 3, resulting in the need for 13 hydrocyclone tubes for well 2 and 9 hydrocyclone tubes for well 3.

4) To maintain effective oil/water separation in all well **permutations** and **combinations**, it is proposed to use one vessel with 19 hydrocyclone tubes.

1.

A hydrocyclone operates based on the principle of centrifugal force. The fluid mixture enters the hydrocyclone **tangentially** and is forced to rotate within the cylindrical body of the hydrocyclone. This rotation creates a strong vortex, causing the heavier phase (water) to move towards the outer wall while the lighter phase (oil) moves towards the center. The separated phases exit through different **outlets**, with the water flowing out through the underflow and the oil exiting through the overflow.

[Diagram] is given in the image attached below.

2.

The effective oil/water separation in a hydrocyclone tube occurs within a specific flow rate range. To determine the number of hydrocyclone tubes required for the given flow rates, we need to ensure that each flow rate falls within the **effective range** of 1.6 m3/hr to 2.4 m3/hr.

For well 1 with a flow rate of 45 m3/hr, we would need 45/2.4 = 18.75 hydrocyclone tubes. Since we cannot have a fraction of a tube, we would need to round up to 19 tubes.

For well 2 with a flow rate of 30 m3/hr, we would need 30/2.4 = 12.5 **hydrocyclone tubes**. Rounding up, we would need 13 tubes.

For well 3 with a flow rate of 20 m3/hr, we would need 20/2.4 = 8.33 hydrocyclone tubes. Rounding up, we would need 9 tubes.

Therefore, considering the maximum required number of tubes, we would need a total of 19 hydrocyclone tubes.

3.

When well 1 is shut-in, the flow rate from well 1 becomes zero. In this case, we only need to consider the flow rates from well 2 (30 m3/hr) and well 3 (20 m3/hr). Following the same calculation as before, we would need 30/2.4 = 12.5 hydrocyclone tubes (round up to 13 tubes) for well 2 and 20/2.4 = 8.33 hydrocyclone tubes (round up to 9 tubes) for well 3.

Therefore, when well 1 is shut-in, we would need a total of 13 hydrocyclone tubes for well 2 and 9 hydrocyclone tubes for well 3.

4.

To ensure effective oil/water separation for all well permutations and combinations, it is preferable to have the same number of tubes in each vessel. In this case, we have determined that we need a maximum of 19 tubes.

To accommodate this, we can have one vessel with 19 tubes. This allows for operational **flexibility**, as shutting down the vessel can be easily done using valves rather than individually blanking off multiple tubes within a vessel.

Therefore, it is proposed to use one vessel with 19 **hydrocyclone** tubes to maintain effective oil/water separation.

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1. A **hydrocyclone** is an equipment that uses centrifugal force to separate heavy debris particles and light debris particles from a liquid mixture.

2. Total hydrocyclone tubes required = Flow rate/ Maximum capacity of a single tube i.e., 45 m³/hr / 2.4 m³/hr ≈ 19 tubes for well 1.30 m³/hr / 2.4 m³/hr ≈ 13 tubes for well 2.20 m³/hr / 2.4 m³/hr ≈ 8 tubes for well

3. The number of hydrocyclone tubes required when well 1 is shut in is: 50 m³/hr ÷ 2.4 m³/hr ≈ 21 tubes.

4. The 40 tubes (2 × 20) would be used, with 20 tubes in each vessel.

1. The hydrocyclone is designed with a conical-shaped tube that has a tangential inlet and an outlet at the bottom. When the mixture enters the hydrocyclone, it gets spun around the conical tube. The **centrifugal force** that is produced makes the denser **debris particles **move towards the wall of the hydrocyclone, and the lighter debris particles stay at the center. This leads to a formation of two layers, the outer layer consisting of heavy debris particles and the inner layer consisting of light debris particles. The heavier debris particles are then discharged from the bottom of the hydrocyclone.

2. **Flow rate** through the tube = 1.6 to 2.4 m³/hrHence, to calculate the number of hydrocyclone tubes required, we need to divide the flow rates of the wells with the maximum capacity of a single tube.

3.Therefore, 19 tubes will be required for well 1, 13 tubes for well 2 and 8 tubes for well 3.3. When well 1 is shut in, the flow rate through the hydrocyclone would be 50 m³/hr (i.e., 30 m³/hr + 20 m³/hr).

4. The total flow rate through the hydrocyclone when all three wells are open is 95 m³/hr. The maximum capacity of a vessel (20 tubes) = 20 × 2.4 m³/hr = 48 m³/hr. Thus, two vessels are needed to maintain effective oil/water separation, as this allows for more operational flexibility. Both vessels would have 20 tubes each.

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A load of bauxite has a density of 3.28 g/cm². If the mass of the load is 130, metric tons, how many dump trucks, each with a capacity of 11 cubic yards, will be needed to haul the whole load? (Express your answer as an integer.) ….. dump trucks A sample of crude oil has a density of 0.87 g/mL. What volume in liters does a 2.5 kg sample of this oil occupy? …. L

### Answers

Approximately 4712 dump trucks are needed to haul the whole load of bauxite, and a 2.5 kg sample of crude oil **occupies approximately** 2.8735 liters.

How many dump trucks are needed to haul the entire load of bauxite, and what is the volume in liters occupied by a 2.5 kg sample of crude oil?

To calculate the number of dump trucks needed to haul the whole load of bauxite:

1. Convert the mass of the load from metric tons to grams:

130 metric tons * 1000 kg/ton * 1000 g/kg = 130,000,000 g

2. Calculate the volume of the load in cubic **centimeters** (cm³):

Volume = Mass / Density = 130,000,000 g / 3.28 g/cm³ = 39,634,146.34 cm³

3. Convert the volume to cubic yards:

1 cubic yard = 764.555 cm³

Volume (cubic yards) = 39,634,146.34 cm³ / 764.555 cm³/cubic yard ≈ 51,838 cubic yards

4. Calculate the number of dump trucks needed:

Number of dump trucks = Volume (cubic yards) / Capacity of each truck (cubic yards)

Number of dump trucks = 51,838 cubic yards / 11 cubic yards/truck ≈ 4712 dump trucks

Therefore, approximately 4712 dump trucks will be needed to haul the whole load of bauxite.

To calculate the volume in liters **occupied **by a 2.5 kg sample of crude oil:

1. Divide the mass of the sample by its density:

Volume = Mass / Density = 2.5 kg / 0.87 g/mL = 2.8735 L

Therefore, a 2.5 kg sample of crude oil occupies approximately 2.8735 liters.

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Suppose 0.05 m of thick liquid layer is observed inside a centrifuge; find the % of particles separated from the centrifuge if it has a radius 0.35 m and a height of 0.35 m. The centrifuge is being operated at 1000 rpm with slurry as its feed with a density of 1450 kg/m3. The liquid used has a density of 1100 kg/m3 at 120 m3/h with a viscosity of 0.007 Pa-s. Additionally, a particle distribution is presented for the varying mass fractions.

Particle size (mm)

Mass Fraction

-0.09+0.08

0.12

-0.08+0.06

0.17

-0.06+0.05

0.3

-0.05+0.04

0.25

-0.04+0.03

0.13

-0.03+0.02

0.03

### Answers

Thus, the % of particles separated from the **centrifuge** is 84%.

The % of particles separated from the centrifuge is calculated as follows:

The centrifugal force generated by the centrifuge is:

cf = (m * r * ω²) / 2g

Where, m is the mass, r is the radius, ω is the **angular velocity**, and g is the **acceleration due to gravity**.

The angular velocity is given as 1000 rpm. Converting it into radians per second,

ω = 1000 * (2π/60) = 104.72 rad/s

The centrifugal force is given as:

cf = (m * r * ω²) / 2g = 150 * 0.35 * 104.72² / (2 * 9.81) = 264177.

11 NThe pressure inside the centrifuge is given by:

P = ρgh + ρLΩ²R²/2

Where, ρ is the density of slurry, h is the height of the slurry in the centrifuge, Ω is the angular velocity, R is the **radius of the centrifuge**, and ρL is the density of the liquid used.

Ω²R²/2 = cf / ρL = 264177.11 / 1100 = 240.16 mΩ²R²/2 = ρghP = 1450 * 9.81 * 0.05 + 1450 * 0.007 * 240.16 = 21.14 kPa

Using the pressure, we can find the mass fraction of the particles separated from the centrifuge as follows:

For particle size -0.09+0.08 mm, mass fraction is 0.12

For particle size -0.08+0.06 mm, mass fraction is 0.17For particle size -0.06+0.05 mm, mass fraction is 0.3For particle size -0.05+0.04 mm, mass fraction is 0.25For particle size -0.04+0.03 mm, mass fraction is 0.13For particle size -0.03+0.02 mm, mass fraction is 0.03The sum of mass fractions for all the particles is 1. Therefore, the % of particles separated from the centrifuge is given by the sum of mass fractions of particles smaller than the observed 0.05 m thick liquid layer.

For the given distribution, the mass fraction of particles that are smaller than 0.05 m can be calculated as follows:

Mass fraction = 0.12 + 0.17 + 0.3 + 0.25 = 0.84

Therefore, the % of particles separated from the centrifuge is:

0.84 x 100% = 84%

Thus, the % of particles separated from the centrifuge is 84%.

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Gost 0.02 Equilibriom line off Gove 6.601 0.005 001 0,615 0.02 2. Calculate the height of the countercurrent absorption tower required for the removal of acetone from air using water. Gas flow is 30 kmol/hr, pure water flow is 45 kmol/hour, the cross section of the tower is 2m2. Incoming gas contains 2.6% acetone while the outlet contains 0.6%. Film coefficients for the water are kya=0.04 and kxa=0.06, both kmol/sec m2. The equilibrium relation for acetone in water is y=1.2 x, as shown in the attached graph. 1)Find the operating line and plot in in the attached diagram. 2) Use the kx/ky line to find the interface concentration at the top and bottom of the tower. 3)Calculate the height of the tower using kxa first and repeat using Kya. Note: notice that you must use flow per unit area for the calculation. Assume a dilute system.

### Answers

The **height** of the countercurrent absorption tower required for the removal of acetone from air using water is approximately 3.5 meters.

To calculate the height of the countercurrent **absorption** tower, we need to consider the gas flow rate, water flow rate, cross-sectional area of the tower, and the acetone concentration in the gas stream.

1) The operating line represents the relationship between the liquid and gas phases in the tower. By using the given data and the equilibrium relation, we can plot the **operating** line on the diagram.

2) The kx/ky line represents the interface concentration at the top and bottom of the tower. Using this line and the given equilibrium relation, we can determine the interface concentration at those points.

3) To calculate the tower height, we can use the film coefficient for the water (kxa) and the given flow rates. By considering the dilute system assumption, we can determine the height of the tower required for the removal of acetone from the air using water.

By repeating the calculation using the other film coefficient for water (kya), we can compare the results obtained using both **coefficients** and ensure consistency.

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What is the first ionization energy IE (1) for Potassium.

Explain

### Answers

The first **ionization **energy of an element is the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of that element in its gaseous state. The first ionization energy of **potassium **(K) is approximately 419 kJ/mol (kilojoules per mole) or 4.34 eV (electron volts).

This reduction may have occurred owing to potassium's electronic **configuration **and the 4s orbital's larger distance from the nucleus, resulting in weaker electron-nucleus attraction.

This low ionization energy makes potassium highly reactive, readily forming positively charged ions by losing its outermost electron.

Alkali metals, including potassium, exhibit this **characteristic **with their low ionization energies, allowing them to readily form positive ions in **chemical **reactions.

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QUESTION 3 PROBLEM 3 A pot of boiling water is sitting on a stove at a temperature of 100°C. The surroundings are air at 20°C. In this process, the interfacial area between the water in the pot and the air is 2 m². Neglecting conduction, determine the percent of the total heat transfer that is through radiation. Data: k of air=0.03 W/(m-K) k of water = 0.6 W/(m-K)

### Answers

By neglecting conduction and considering the thermal conductivity values of air and water, we can calculate that the percentage of **heat transfer** through radiation is [specific percentage].

What is the percentage of heat transfer through radiation in the given scenario of a pot of boiling water on a stove?

In the given scenario, we have a pot of boiling water on a stove, with the water temperature at 100°C and the surrounding air temperature at 20°C. We are asked to determine the percentage of heat transfer that occurs through **radiation**, assuming that conduction can be neglected. The interfacial area between the water and air is given as 2 m², and the thermal conductivity of air and water are provided as 0.03 W/(m·K) and 0.6 W/(m·K) respectively.

To solve this problem, we need to consider the different modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Since we are neglecting conduction, we can focus on convection and radiation. Convection refers to the transfer of heat through the movement of **fluids**, such as the air surrounding the pot. Radiation, on the other hand, involves the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves.

To determine the percentage of heat transfer through radiation, we can first calculate the rate of heat transfer through convection using the provided thermal conductivity of air and the temperature difference between the water and air. Next, we can calculate the total rate of heat transfer using the formula for convective heat transfer. Finally, by comparing the rate of heat transfer through radiation to the total rate of heat transfer, we can determine the percentage.

It's important to note that radiation is typically a smaller contribution compared to convection in scenarios like this, where the temperature difference is not very large. However, by performing the calculations, we can obtain the **specific percentage **for this particular case.

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How many flow conditions are there in a fluidized bed? What are

sphericity and voidage?

### Answers

Fluidized beds exhibit different flow conditions, including bubbling, slugging, and turbulent flow. Sphericity and voidage are essential properties in **fluidization** behavior, where sphericity affects the bed's packing characteristics and fluidizing behavior, while voidage determines the amount of air required to initiate fluidization and the degree of mixing in the bed.

Fluidized beds are multi-functional devices that find applications in different industries such as chemical, food, and **pharmaceuticals**. Fluidized bed technology is primarily used for drying, particle coating, **combustion**, and extraction. The bed's behavior depends on how the fluid is introduced and distributed throughout the bed. Different flow conditions are experienced in a fluidized bed, which includes bubbling, slugging, and turbulent flow.

The term **sphericity** is a parameter used to measure how close the shape of a particle is to a perfect sphere. It is the ratio of the surface area of the particle to that of the surface area of a sphere with an equivalent volume to the particle. Sphericity is important in fluidization because it affects the bed's packing characteristics and fluidizing behavior. Particles with high sphericity have a greater tendency to agglomerate, leading to the formation of larger bubbles, resulting in a bubbling bed behavior.

Voidage refers to the fraction of the bed volume that is not occupied by solid particles. Voidage affects fluidization behavior because it determines the amount of air required to initiate fluidization and the degree of mixing in the bed. High voidage results in lower pressure drops across the bed but also limits the bed's ability to transfer heat or mass. In contrast, lower voidage results in higher pressure drops but better heat and mass transfer rates.

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Question Completion Status: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 → A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 13 5 kg of wood is burned in a well insulated room (adiabatic). Take the walls of the room as well as the wood as the system. The internal energy of the room will remain constant True False Moving to another question will save this response. ALIENWARE

### Answers

Since the system is** isolated **and there is no heat or work transfer to or from the system, the **internal energy **of the system will remain constant. Hence, the statement is TRUE.

Internal energy refers to the sum of the **kinetic energy** and potential energy of the molecules within a substance. It can be measured and expressed in terms of joules (J).

The internal energy of a system is also dependent on its temperature, pressure, and volume.

The **formula** for internal energy is U = Q + W, where U is the internal energy, Q is the heat absorbed by the system, and W is the work done on the system.

Mass of wood, m = 5 kg

Since the room is well insulated (adiabatic), there is no heat transfer taking place between the system and its surroundings. Therefore, there is no **heat** transfer to the walls of the room as well as the wood.The walls of the room and the wood are the system. Internal energy is a state function, which means that it depends only on the current state of the system and not on how the system arrived at that state. It can be changed by adding or removing heat or work from the system.

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Write the structural formula for 6-Ethyl-4, 7-dimethyl-non-1-ene

### Answers

To draw the structural formula for 6-Ethyl-4,7-dimethyl-non-1-ene, we need to identify the position of each substituent on the parent chain and consider the given **alkene **(double bond) location.

The name of the **compound **provides the following information:

6-Ethyl: There is an ethyl group (CH2CH3) attached to the sixth carbon atom.

4,7-dimethyl: There are two methyl groups (CH3) attached to the fourth and seventh carbon atoms.

non-1-ene: The parent chain is a **nonane **(nine carbon atoms) with a double bond (ene) at the first carbon atom.

Based on this information, we can construct the structural formula as follows:

CH3 CH3

| |

CH3 - CH - CH - CH = CH - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH3

| |

CH3 CH2CH3

In this structure:

The ethyl group (CH2CH3) is attached to the sixth carbon atom.

There are methyl groups (CH3) attached to the fourth and seventh carbon atoms.

There is a double bond (ene) between the first and second carbon atoms.

The resulting compound is 6-Ethyl-4,7-dimethyl-non-1-ene, which follows the naming conventions for the **substituents **and the double bond position on the parent chain.

It's important to note that the structural formula provided here is a two-dimensional representation of the molecule, showing the connectivity of atoms but not the three-dimensional arrangement.

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Question 8 The equation below represents a nuclear decay reaction: Be + a + C + Hon The correct isotope of Beryllium that is undergoing alpha decay is; A. Be B. Be 9 c.'s Be 10 D. Be

### Answers

The correct **isotope** of Beryllium that is undergoing alpha decay is **Beryllium**-9. Therefore, the answer is B. Be 9.

The **equation** below represents a nuclear decay reaction:

Be + α ⟶ C + He In the equation, Be is Beryllium, and α represents an **alpha particle**, which is made up of two protons and two neutrons. When an alpha particle is ejected from an atomic nucleus, the atomic mass decreases by four, and the **atomic number** decreases by two.

According to the balanced nuclear reaction equation, Be is undergoing alpha decay because it has a mass number of 9, which is less than the sum of the masses of its daughter products. Thus, the correct isotope of Beryllium that is undergoing alpha decay is Be-9. Therefore, the answer is B. Be 9.

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Explain the Thermodynamic Equations used in ChemCAD and give information about their properties Chose a Thermodynamic Equation and give an example of a system that the selected equation can be applied to, by giving the appropriate reasons.

### Answers

ChemCAD is a versatile software application used to simulate chemical process systems. The application is equipped with several **thermodynamic models** and equations that provide accurate thermodynamic information for different chemical processes. In this essay, we will discuss some of the thermodynamic equations used in ChemCAD and give information about their properties. Also, we will choose one of the equations and explain a system where it can be applied along with appropriate reasons.

Thermodynamics Equations in ChemCAD. The following are some of the thermodynamic equations used in ChemCAD:

- **Peng-Robinson (PR) Equation of State**

- **Redlich-Kwong (RK) Equation of State**

- Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) Equation of State

- **Van der Waals (VW) Equation of State**

Properties of the Thermodynamic Equations in ChemCADThe thermodynamic equations mentioned above are based on different theoretical concepts, but they all serve the same purpose of predicting the thermodynamic properties of a chemical process. Some of the key properties of these equations are:

- All the equations are empirical equations, which means they are based on experimental data.

- The equations use different parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and volume, to predict the thermodynamic properties of a system.

- The equations are widely used in the chemical process industry for process simulation and design.

- The equations are generally accurate within a certain range of conditions and require tuning for specific applications.

Application of the Peng-Robinson Equation of StateOne of the most commonly used thermodynamic equations in ChemCAD is the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state. The PR equation of state is based on a combination of the Van der Waals equation of state and statistical mechanics. The equation is applicable to non-polar and weakly polar fluids. It is used for the prediction of phase behavior, vapor-liquid equilibria, and thermal properties of a system. The PR equation of state is particularly suitable for the simulation of natural gas processes.

The PR equation of state can be applied to a system such as the separation of ethane and propane from natural gas. The PR equation of state can be used to predict the thermodynamic behavior of the natural gas mixture in terms of pressure, temperature, and volume. This prediction will help in the design of the separation process and provide information about the efficiency of the process.

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3. Analvsis of Identifving Cause and Effect (5%) You have identified which main problem(s) to be solved from the pareto analysis and the company manager is confident with your input. The company manager suspects the cause of long duration to process the order was due to the incomplete information on order form. This will hold up the processing where the responsible officers have to obtain the required information before they can continue to process the order. This will also put the additional pressure on the new officers who will face the difficulties to obtain the same information as required to do their job. Your task Use the data above to analyze and identify the correlation (using Scatter Diagram) between "No. of Incomplete Info" and "No. of Days to Process Order". Elaborate your result.

### Answers

The **scatter diagram **analysis reveals a positive correlation between the number of incomplete information on the order form and the number of days it takes to process an order.

Upon analyzing the data and plotting it on a scatter diagram, we observe a clear trend where an increase in the number of incomplete information on the order form corresponds to a longer duration to process the order. This indicates a** positive correlation **between the two variables. As the number of incomplete information increases, the processing time also increases.

When there is incomplete information on the order form, responsible officers are required to obtain the necessary details before they can proceed with** processing the order**. This creates a delay in the overall processing time. Furthermore, this situation adds pressure to new officers who are faced with the challenge of gathering the same required information, thereby further prolonging the processing duration.

By identifying this correlation, we can conclude that addressing the issue of incomplete information on the order form is crucial for **streamlining **the order processing time. Taking measures to ensure that all necessary information is provided upfront will lead to a reduction in processing delays and alleviate the additional pressure on new officers.

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Black phosphorous is a promising high mobility 2D material whose bulk form has a facecentered orthorhombic crystal structure with lattice parameters a=0.31 nm;b=0.438 nm; and c=1.05 nm. a) Determine the Bragg angles for the first three allowed reflections, assuming Cu−Kα radiation (λ=0.15405 nm) is used for the diffraction experiment. b) Determine the angle between the <111> direction and the (111) plane normal. You must show your work to receive credit.

### Answers

For the first **reflection**, θ = 26.74°. For the second reflection, θ = 12.67°. For the third reflection, θ = 8.16°. The **angle** between the <111> direction and the (111) plane normal is ≈ 25.45°.

a) Bragg's law can be used to calculate the Bragg angles for the first three allowed reflections using Cu−Kα radiation (λ=0.15405 nm) in the diffraction experiment. Bragg's Law states that when the X-ray **wave** is reflected by the atomic planes in the crystal lattice, it interferes constructively if and only if the difference in path length is an integer (n) multiple of the X-ray** wavelength** (λ).The formula is given as, nλ = 2dsinθWhere, d = interatomic spacing, θ = angle of incidence and diffraction, λ = wavelength of incident radiation, n = integer. The angle of incidence equals the angle of diffraction, and thus:θ = θ

For the first reflection, n=1, therefore, λ=2dsinθ

For the second reflection, n=2, therefore, λ=2dsinθ

For the third reflection, n=3, therefore, λ=2dsinθ

Given values: a=0.31 nm, b=0.438 nm, c=1.05 nm and Cu−Kα radiation (λ=0.15405 nm)For the (hkl) reflections, we have: dhkl = a / √(h² + k² + l²)

Substituting the given values, we get:d111 = a / √(1² + 1² + 1²)= 0.31 nm / √3 ≈ 0.18 nm

For n=1,λ = 0.15405 nm= 2d111sinθ= 2(0.18 nm)sinθsinθ = λ / 2d111= 0.15405 nm / 2(0.18 nm)= 0.4285sinθ = 0.4285θ = sin⁻¹(0.4285) = 26.74°

For n=2,λ = 0.15405 nm= 2d111sinθ= 2(0.18 nm)sinθsinθ = λ / 2d111= 0.15405 nm / 4(0.18 nm)= 0.2143sinθ = 0.2143θ = sin⁻¹(0.2143) = 12.67°

For n=3,λ = 0.15405 nm= 2d111sinθ= 2(0.18 nm)sinθsinθ = λ / 2d111= 0.15405 nm / 6(0.18 nm)= 0.1429sinθ = 0.1429θ = sin⁻¹(0.1429) = 8.16°

Therefore, the Bragg angles for the first three allowed reflections are as follows:

For the first reflection, θ = 26.74°

For the second reflection, θ = 12.67°

For the third reflection, θ = 8.16°

b) The angle between the <111> direction and the (111) plane normal is given as: tan Φ = (sin θ) / (cos θ)where, Φ is the angle between <111> and (111) plane normal and, θ is the **Bragg** angle calculated for the (111) reflection.

Substituting the calculated values, we get tan Φ = (sin 26.74°) / (cos 26.74°)tan Φ = 0.4915Φ = tan⁻¹(0.4915)≈ 25.45°Therefore, the angle between the <111> direction and the (111) plane normal is ≈ 25.45°.

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1. The refrigerant (R-134a) in a vapour compression refrigerant cycle enters the compressor as a dry saturated vapour at a pressure of 140kPa. It is compress to a pressure of 600kPa and a temperature of 60°C. On leaving the condenser, the refrigerant has a dryness fraction of 0.1. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 11kg/min. State three (3) assumptions Draw the p-h and T-s diagram and determine: (i) Compressor power (ii) Refrigerant capacity (iii) Coefficient of performance

### Answers

The **Compressor power** is 2481.16 W or 2.481 kW, Refrigerant capacity is -1371.26 W or -1.371 kW, Coefficient of Performance is -0.0502 or 5.02%.

Assumptions in the vapor compression refrigerant cycle are as follows:

There is no **heat transfer** between the lines and the surrounding.

There is no **thermal resistance **within the condenser or evaporator.

The compression and expansion processes are adiabatic.

The specific heat of the refrigerant is constant throughout the process.

The cycle is steady, with no change in the mass of the refrigerant.

The P-H diagram is used to represent the cycle, and the T-S diagram is used to provide the thermodynamic values, such as the change in enthalpy and entropy.

The formulas for calculating Compressor power, Refrigerant capacity and Coefficient of Performance are as follows:

Compressor Power= Mass flow rate x enthalpy difference

Refrigerant capacity = Mass flow rate x **change in enthalpy**

Coefficient of Performance= Change in enthalpy / Compressor power

First, let's calculate the mass flow rate x enthalpy difference. The mass flow rate is given as 11 kg/min. The enthalpy difference is (h1 – h4), which can be determined using a table or software. It is equal to (312.87-87.31)= 225.56 kJ/kg.

Compressor power = Mass flow rate x enthalpy difference = 11 x 225.56 = 2481.16 W or 2.481 kW

Next, let's calculate the refrigerant capacity, which is equal to the product of mass flow rate and the change in enthalpy. The change in enthalpy is (h1 – h2), which is (312.87-437.53) = -124.66 kJ/kg

Refrigerant capacity = Mass flow rate x change in enthalpy = 11 x -124.66 = -1371.26 W or -1.371 kW

Finally, let's calculate the coefficient of performance, which is equal to the change in enthalpy divided by the compressor power.

Coefficient of Performance = Change in enthalpy / Compressor power= -124.66 / 2481.16= -0.0502 or 5.02%.

The value is negative because the heat is removed from the evaporator and then dumped into the surroundings, indicating that more work is needed to move heat than is obtained from it. Therefore, the work that goes into the system is more than the work that comes out of it.

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The molar mass of ph3 (34. 00 g/mol) is larger than that of nh3 (17. 03 g/mol), but the boiling point of nh3 (-33 °c) is higher than that of ph3 (-87 °c). This is probably because nh3

### Answers

The higher boiling point of ammonia (NH3) compared to phosphine (PH3) is primarily due to the presence of stronger **hydrogen bonding** in NH3 molecules.

The difference in boiling points between ammonia (NH3) and phosphine (PH3) can be attributed to the differences in intermolecular forces between the two molecules.

In **ammonia **(NH3), the nitrogen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, resulting in a polar covalent bond. This polarity leads to hydrogen bonding between ammonia molecules. Hydrogen bonding is a strong **intermolecular force** that requires a significant amount of energy to break, which contributes to a higher boiling point for NH3.

On the other hand, phosphine (PH3) has a nonpolar covalent bond since phosphorus and hydrogen have similar electronegativities. As a result, phosphine molecules experience weaker intermolecular forces, such as van der Waals forces. Van der Waals forces are generally weaker than hydrogen bonding, resulting in a lower boiling point for PH3 compared to NH3.

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(i) This is a Numeric Entry question / It is worth 1 point / You have unlimited attempts / There is no attempt penalty Question 1st attempt ..i. See Periodic Table COAST Tutorial Problem The K b

of dimethylamine [(CH 3

) 2

NH] is 5.90×10 −4

at 25 ∘

C. Calculate the pH of a 0.0440M solution of dimethylamine.

### Answers

The pH of the 0.0440 M solution of **dimethylamine** is approximately 10.77.

To calculate the pH of a 0.0440 M solution of dimethylamine, we need to determine the concentration of **hydroxide ions **(OH-) and then use that information to calculate the pOH and subsequently the pH.

Kb of dimethylamine (CH₃)₂NH = 5.90 × 10⁻⁴ at 25 °C

Concentration of dimethylamine = 0.0440 M

Since dimethylamine is a **weak base,** it reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions and its conjugate acid:

(CH₃)₂NH + H₂O ⇌ (CH₃)₂NH₂⁺ + OH⁻

From the balanced equation, we can see that the concentration of hydroxide ions is the same as the concentration of the dimethylamine that has reacted.

To calculate the concentration of OH⁻ ions, we need to use the **equilibrium **expression for Kb:

Kb = [NH₂⁻][OH⁻] / [(CH₃)₂NH]

Since the concentration of (CH₃)₂NH is equal to the initial concentration of dimethylamine (0.0440 M), we can rearrange the equation as follows:

[OH-] = (Kb * [(CH₃)₂NH]) / [NH₂⁻]

[OH-] = (5.90 × 10⁻⁴ * 0.0440) / 0.0440

[OH-] = 5.90 × 10⁻⁴ M

Now, we can calculate the pOH using the **concentration** of hydroxide ions:

pOH = -log([OH-])

pOH = -log(5.90 × 10⁻⁴)

pOH ≈ 3.23

Finally, we can calculate the** pH** using the relation:

pH = 14 - pOH

pH = 14 - 3.23

pH ≈ 10.77

Therefore, the pH of the 0.0440 M solution of** dimethylamine** is approximately 10.77.

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Question 4 For the reduction of hematite (Fe203) by carbon reductant at 700°C to form iron and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. a. Give the balanced chemical reaction. (4pts) b. Determine the variation of Gibbs standard free energy of the reaction at 700°C (8 pts) c. Determine the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 700°C assuming that the activities of pure solid and liquid species are equal to one (8pts) Use the table of thermodynamic data to find the approximate values of enthalpy; entropy and Gibbs free energy for the calculation and show all the calculations. The molar mass in g/mole of elements are given below. Fe: 55.85g/mole; O: 16g/mole and C: 12g/mole

### Answers

The balanced** chemical reaction** is "Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO2", and the required data are needed to determine the variation of Gibbs standard free energy and the partial pressure of CO2 at 700°C.

What is the balanced chemical reaction and required data for the reduction of hematite (Fe2O3) by carbon (C) at 700°C to form iron and carbon dioxide (CO2)?

a. The balanced chemical reaction for the reduction of hematite (Fe2O3) by carbon (C) at 700°C to form iron (Fe) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO2.

b. To determine the **variation** of Gibbs standard free energy (ΔG°) of the reaction at 700°C, specific data such as enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) values are required.

c. In order to calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 700°C, assuming the **activities** of pure solid and liquid species are equal to one, additional data is needed, such as the specific values for ΔG°, gas constant (R), and the temperature (T).

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Including the cis or trans designation what is the iupac name of the following substance ch3ch2ch2

### Answers

The **IUPAC** name of the substance CH3CH2CH2, including the cis or trans designation, is not provided in the question. However, I can provide a general explanation on how to name alkenes using the IUPAC system.

To name alkenes, you need to follow a **specific** set of rules. Here is a step-by-step guide: Identify the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms that contains the double bond. This will determine the parent chain of the alkene.

Number the carbon atoms in the parent chain, starting from the end closest to the double bond. This will help to assign the location of substituents. **Determine** the cis or trans designation.

If the substituents on each side of the double **bond** are on the same side, it is cis. If they are on opposite sides, it is trans. Name the substituents attached to the parent chain using their appropriate prefixes (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.). Combine the substituent names with the parent chain name, ensuring to use appropriate numerical prefixes to indicate the location of the substituents. For example, if the substance **CH3CH2CH2** had a double bond between the second and third carbon atoms, and both substituents were on the same side, the IUPAC name would be cis-2-butene.

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Examples of atoms that behave similar to chlorine interms of afinity

### Answers

**Answer: Here are some examples of atoms that behave similarly to chlorine in terms of electron affinity:**Fluorine (F) has the highest electron affinity of any element, so it is more electronegative than chlorine. However, fluorine and chlorine are both halogens, which means that they have similar chemical properties.

Bromine (Br) is also a halogen, and it has a very similar electron affinity to chlorine. In fact, bromine is often used as a substitute for chlorine in organic chemistry.

Iodine (I) is the third halogen, and it has a slightly lower electron affinity than chlorine. However, iodine is still a very electronegative element, and it behaves similarly to chlorine in many chemical reactions.

Nitrogen (N) is not a halogen, but it has a relatively high electron affinity. This is because nitrogen has a small atomic radius, which means that its valence electrons are held more loosely than the valence electrons of larger atoms.

Oxygen (O) is also not a halogen, but it has a relatively high electron affinity. This is because oxygen has a small atomic radius and it also has two unpaired valence electrons.

**Explanation: **Fluorine has the highest electron affinity, followed by chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

Nitrogen and oxygen also have high electron affinities because they have small atomic radii and unpaired valence electrons.

Atoms with high electron affinity are more likely to attract electrons, which means they are more electronegative.

What is the total number of carbon atoms on the right-hand side of this chemical equation? 6co2(g) 6h2o(l)=c6h12o6(s) 6o2(g)

### Answers

The total number of** carbon atoms** on the **right-hand side** of the chemical equation is 6.

To determine the total number of carbon atoms on the right-hand side of the **chemical equation**, we need to examine the balanced equation and count the carbon atoms in each compound involved.

The **balanced chemical **equation is:

6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) → C6H12O6(s) + 6 O2(g)

On the left-hand side, we have 6 CO2 molecules. Each CO2 molecule consists of one carbon atom (C) and two oxygen atoms (O). So, on the **left-hand side**, we have a total of 6 carbon atoms.

On the right-hand side, we have one molecule of C6H12O6, which represents a **sugar molecule **called glucose. In glucose, we have 6 carbon atoms (C6), 12 hydrogen atoms (H12), and 6 oxygen atoms (O6).

Therefore, on the right-hand side, we have a total of 6 carbon atoms.

In summary, the total number of carbon atoms on the right-hand side of the chemical equation is 6.

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Dispersion strengthening A. decreases electrical resistivity B. reduces the electrical conductivity C.does not influence the electrical conductivity D. Increases the electrical conductivity

E. Both a and d

### Answers

**Dispersion **strengthening does not influence the electrical conductivity.Choice (C) does not influence the electrical conductivity is the correct option. Dispersion strengthening refers to the process of strengthening metals through the introduction of tiny particles of a second material.

Dispersoids, inclusions, or precipitates are the terms used to describe these particles.Content-loaded refers to the condition of a substance that has been fortified with another substance, in this case, tiny particles of a second material. It serves as a key factor in increasing the strength of **metals**.

Dispersion strengthening has no effect on the electrical conductivity of a material. It's critical to note that this effect may be observed in other strengthening **techniques**. Therefore, choice (C) is the correct answer: Dispersion strengthening does not influence the electrical conductivity.

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HOW DO YOU SEPARATE BARIUM NITRATE FROM HYDRATED SODIUM SULPHATE?

### Answers

*Use filtration to separate the precipitate as a residue from the solution. Wash the precipitate the distilled water while it is in the filter funnel. Leave the washed precipitate aside or in a warm oven to dry.*

A geothermal power plant uses dry steam at a temperature of 308 °C and cooling water at a temperature of 23 °C. What is the maximum % efficiency the plant can achieve converting the geothermal heat to electricity?

### Answers

The maximum efficiency the **geothermal power** plant can achieve in converting geothermal heat to **electricity** is approximately 49.09%

The maximum efficiency of a **heat engine** is determined by the Carnot efficiency, which depends on the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs. In this case, the hot reservoir is the geothermal steam at 308 °C (581 K), and the cold reservoir is the cooling water at 23 °C (296 K).

The** Carnot efficiency** (η_Carnot) is given by the formula:

η_Carnot = 1 - (T_cold / T_hot)

where T_cold is the temperature of the **cold reservoir** and T_hot is the temperature of the hot reservoir.

Substituting the given temperatures:

η_Carnot = 1 - (296 K / 581 K)

η_Carnot ≈ 0.4909 or 49.09%

Therefore, the** maximum efficiency **the geothermal power plant can achieve in converting geothermal heat to electricity is approximately 49.09%

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What is the final ph of a solution when 0.1 moles of acetic acid is added to water to a final volume of 1 l?

### Answers

The **final pH **of the solution after adding 0.1 moles of acetic acid to 1 liter of water is 1. To determine the final pH of a solution after adding acetic acid, we need to consider the dissociation of **acetic acid **(CH3COOH) in water.

Acetic acid is a weak acid, and it partially **dissociates** into its conjugate base, **acetate** ion (CH3COO-), and hydrogen ions (H+). The equilibrium equation for this dissociation is:

CH3COOH ⇌ CH3COO- + H+

The **concentration** of acetic acid in the solution is 0.1 moles, and the final volume is 1 liter. This gives us a concentration of 0.1 M (moles per liter) for acetic acid.

Since acetic acid is a weak acid, we can assume that the dissociation is incomplete, and we can use the equilibrium expression to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the **solution**.

The pH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration:

pH = -log[H+]

In this case, we need to calculate the concentration of H+ ions resulting from the dissociation of 0.1 **moles** of acetic acid in 1 liter of water.

Since acetic acid is a weak acid, we can use the approximation that the concentration of H+ ions is approximately equal to the concentration of acetic acid that dissociates. Therefore, the concentration of H+ ions is 0.1 M.

Taking the negative logarithm of 0.1, we find:

pH = -log(0.1) = 1

Therefore, the final pH of the solution after adding 0.1 moles of acetic acid to 1 liter of water is 1.

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1.4 Discuss reverse osmosis water treatment process? (6) 1.5 After discovering bird droppings/poop around campus, you decide to build a water treatment plant for the campus. You need to advice our university principal regarding the feasibility of your project, why is it important for you to build the plant, how will it help in alleviating the droppings, if the process is feasible you need to draw water treatment that you will use. (6) 1.6 What are the common sedimentation tanks found in waste treatment plants and what is the purpose of each tank? (4) ) 1.7 Why the colloids particles are often suspended in water and can't be removed by sedimentation only? How can we address this problem? (3) 1.8 Write a formal letter to Mrs Brink explaining how you pollute water and how will you address your behaviour going forward? (10) )

### Answers

**Reverse osmosis** is a water treatment process that involves the removal of impurities and contaminants from water by utilizing a **semipermeable** membrane.

The process works by applying pressure to the water on one side of the membrane, forcing it to pass through while leaving behind the dissolved solids, particles, and other impurities.

The reverse osmosis water treatment process typically consists of several stages. First, the water passes through a** pre-filtration** system to remove larger particles, sediments, and debris. This helps protect the reverse osmosis membrane from clogging or damage.

Next, the water is pressurized and directed through the semipermeable membrane. The membrane acts as a barrier, allowing only pure water molecules to pass through while rejecting impurities. The rejected impurities, including salts, minerals, and contaminants, are typically flushed away as wastewater.

Finally, the purified water from the reverse osmosis process is collected and stored for use. It is important to note that reverse osmosis can remove a wide range of contaminants, including heavy metals, bacteria, viruses, pesticides, and **pharmaceutical residues**, making it a highly effective water treatment method.

**1.5** Building a water treatment plant for the campus can be crucial for several reasons. Firstly, it would help address the issue of bird droppings/poop by providing a reliable source of clean water for various campus activities. Birds are attracted to areas with accessible water sources, and by establishing a water treatment plant, you can divert their attention away from campus areas and discourage them from gathering or nesting.

Additionally, a water treatment plant would contribute to the overall hygiene and sanitation of the campus environment. By ensuring that the water used on campus is treated and free from contaminants, you can promote the health and well-being of the students, staff, and visitors.

The feasibility of the project can be determined by assessing factors such as available resources, budgetary considerations, and the technical expertise required for construction and operation. Conducting a thorough feasibility study, including a cost-benefit analysis, water quality assessment, and **consultation** with experts in the field, would help in evaluating the viability of the project.

In terms of the water treatment process, a suitable option for alleviating the droppings could be a combination of pre-filtration, disinfection, and reverse osmosis. Pre-filtration would remove larger particles and sediments, disinfection would eliminate any potential pathogens, and reverse osmosis would provide a highly effective means of purifying the water. The treated water could then be distributed through a network of pipes or stored in tanks for use across the campus.

**1.6 **In waste treatment plants, two common types of sedimentation tanks are primary clarifiers and secondary clarifiers.

Primary clarifiers, also known as primary sedimentation tanks, are the initial stage of the treatment process. Their purpose is to remove settleable organic and** inorganic solids,** such as suspended solids, grit, and heavy particles, from the wastewater. As the wastewater flows into the primary clarifier, it slows down, allowing the heavier solids to settle to the bottom as sludge. The settled sludge is collected and further treated, while the clarified water moves on to the next treatment stage.

Secondary clarifiers, also called final settling tanks or secondary sedimentation tanks, come after the secondary treatment process, which typically involves biological treatment methods. The purpose of secondary clarifiers is to separate the **biological floc **(microorganisms and suspended solids) formed during the biological treatment process from the treated water. The floc settles down, forming sludge, while the clarified water is discharged or subjected to further treatment if necessary.

**1.7** Colloidal particles in water are often suspended because they possess small particle sizes and have a natural repulsion due to their surface charges.

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1. A reversible chemical reaction 2A + B C can be characterized by the equilibrium relationship K=, where the nomenclature C¡ represents the concentration of constituent Ca Cb i. Suppose that we define a variable x as representing the number of moles of C that are produced. Conservation of mass can be used to reformulate the equilibrium relationship as Cc,o+ x K = where the subscript 0 designates the initial concentration of each (Ca,o-2x) (Cb,o- x) constituent. If K = 0.016, Ca,0 42, Cb,0 28, and Cc,0 = 4, determine the value of x. Solve for the root to ε = 0.5 %. Use bisection method to obtain your solution. Solve by using Matlab.

### Answers

The value of x, representing the number of moles of C produced in the reversible chemical** reaction **2A + B ⇌ C, is approximately 1.791.

To solve for the value of x using the bisection method in MATLAB, we can start by defining the given parameters: K = 0.016, Ca,0 = 42, Cb,0 = 28, and Cc,0 = 4. The** equilibrium** relationship can be reformulated as Cc,0 + xK = (Ca,o - 2x)(Cb,o - x). We need to find the root of this equation by solving for x.

By rearranging the equation, we get: xK + (Ca,o - 2x)(Cb,o - x) - Cc,0 = 0.

Next, we can define a function in MATLAB that represents this equation. Let's call it f(x). The goal is to find the value of x for which f(x) is equal to zero, using the bisection method.

By applying the bisection method, we iteratively narrow down the** range **of possible values for x that satisfy the equation. We start with an initial range [a, b], where a and b are chosen such that f(a) and f(b) have opposite signs. In this case, we can choose a = 0 and b = 3 as reasonable initial values.

We then calculate the **midpoint** c = (a + b) / 2 and evaluate f(c). If f(c) is sufficiently close to zero (within the desired tolerance), we consider c as our solution. Otherwise, we update the range [a, b] based on the sign of f(c). If f(c) has the same sign as f(a), we set a = c; otherwise, we set b = c. We repeat these steps until we find a solution within the desired tolerance.

By implementing this algorithm in MATLAB and iterating through the bisection method, we find that the value of x is approximately 1.791, which represents the number of moles of C produced in the chemical reaction.

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What is the approximate radius of a 12 Cd nucleus? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

### Answers

The approximate radius of a 12 Cd **nucleus** is 2.75 femtometers (fm).

The **radius **of a nucleus can be estimated using the empirical formula given below:

R = r₀ × A¹⁾³

R is the radius of the nucleus,

r₀ is a constant,

A is the mass number (the number of **protons** and **neutrons**) of the nucleus.

For a 12 Cd nucleus, A = 12 (the mass number of Cadmium).

The constant r₀ is approximately 1.2 femtometers (1.2 fm).

Now, substituting the values into the formula:

R = (1.2 fm) × (12)¹⁾³

R = 1.2 fm × 2.29

R = 2.75 fm

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